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Foundations for Literacy is a one-of-a-kind, evidence-based intervention designed specifically for preschool and kindergarten-aged children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Classroom teachers typically implement Foundations for Literacy four hours a week for the school year. Targeted learning objectives include vocabulary, narrative skills, alphabetic knowledge, phonological awareness, and reading decodable words and short connected text. Each lesson includes strategies for differentiating instruction using fun, multi-sensory, age-appropriate, integrated activities.

We began offering training workshops and distributing the intervention materials in the summer of 2017. Over 500 classroom teachers around the country have successfully implemented Foundations for Literacy in center-based programs and resource classrooms. Additionally, itinerant teachers, speech language pathologists and special education teachers have adapted our lessons to meet the needs of DHH students in various settings. Educators have also used components of Foundations for Literacy for remediation with elementary-school students.

Foundations for Literacy was developed by an interdisciplinary team of professionals:

Dr. Amy R. Lederberg, an educational psychologist, is a Regents’ Professor in the Educational Psychology, Special Education, & Communication Disorders department at Georgia State University (GSU)

Ms. Elizabeth Malone Miller, a former teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing, is a Curriculum Specialist at the Atlanta Speech School

Dr. Susan Easterbrooks, a deaf educator, was a Regents’ Professor, Educational Psychology, Special Education, & Communication, GSU

Dr. Stacey Tucci, a former teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing, is director of Georgia Pathway to Language and Literacy

Dr. Victoria Burke, a reading specialist, is a Research Scientist at the Center on Literacy and Deafness, GSU

Dr. Carol M. Connor, a former speech pathologist and reading specialist, is a Chancellor’s Professor, School of Education, University of California-Irvine

And many classroom teachers.

For more information, contact Dr. Amy Lederberg (


Foundations for Literacy was developed with support by the National Center for Special Education Research and the Institute of Education Sciences,
U.S. Department of Education through Grants R324E06035, R324A110101 R324C120001 awarded to Georgia State University. The content on this site does not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.